"Architecture in the `Tourist City` –
The transformation of architectural typologies through the growth of
mass urban tourism in Berlin (1990-2008)"
TOPIC AND CHALLENGE
Tourism has become a strong global phenomenon within the modern leisure society, influencing many social, cultural and economical areas. The significance of architecture for tourism – and vice versa – is rising. Full descriptions in tourist guides expect the tourist to observe and perceive his build environment.
In 2003 the World Tourism Organisation (WTO) recorded that world tourist arrivals had doubled within the last decade alone. Thereby, the increasing tourist crowd especially concentrates on the centres of the metropolis. Almost 63% of the tourist’s daily activities consist of sightseeing, mostly architecture and urban spaces. Many of the most famous sights and urban spaces need to be re-organized to provide enough capacity and quality for the visitors.
Since 2004, with nearly 380.000 visitors a day and a growth index of 24% per year, Berlin reached the top 3 of the most visited places within Europe, directly after Paris and London. This increasing new user-group of urban tourists already changed whole functions and structures of buildings and urban territories due to the temporary but highly intensive use of special places. Berlin provides a important emerging research field, because the process of “touristification” has influenced and re-organized the metropolis since the reunification in 1990 much more intensively than in other cities.
Mass urban tourism has shifted existing architectural typologies within recent historical developments. New typologies have emerged. Until now the profession (city planners, architects) thought, that tourist demands could be easily accomplished by directing visitor flows and providing simple service functions. But tourism claims new complex requirements and makes new demands to infrastructure and the built environment. Furthermore tourism demands provision of enough capacity and a high sojourn quality for the visitors. This makes mass urban tourism an important trigger for the development of high quality contemporary spaces, an important field of future architectural and urban design activity.
The Phenomenon of mass urban tourism, which until now has mainly been researched from the social, cultural and economic perspective, will be classified and positioned within the historical context in relation to the architectural and urban discourse.
The first part examines the historical context of the development of mass urban tourism from the former industrially-shaped Berlin to the post-industrial Metropolis (focus 1990-2008) by starting from Dennis Judd’s1 understanding of the „tourist converted city“. Using Judd’s definition Berlin can be described as a „tourist converted city“, which after the reunification experienced demolition, preservation and construction under urban renewal programs to implant tourist services to the urban corpus. Based on a second scheme, the `post-modern city scheme” by Pearce and Butler2, which describes new spatial zones of the „tourist converted city“, the research will outline how tourism and leisure activities are coexisting in Berlin and how they are overlayed with other urban functions in a complex pattern.
During my study in New York I will outline points of comparison between the case studies in Berlin and examples in the city of New York as a comparable “tourist converted city”. The research will be consolidated by defining structural similarities and specific differences. Both New York and Berlin belong to category of the international most significant sights for mass urban tourism. Both show remarkable spatial transformations in urban space – caused by the global competition between cities (gentrification, construction of new landmarks, overuse and touristification of urban spaces between famous sights, construction of new infrastructures).
The third and core part of my PhD-Project focuses on several case-studies of buildings in the Berlin city centre used by mass tourism, their structural transformation since the reunification and the growing impact of mass media. Until now my research shows in an almost chronological process a massive change in terms of function, building organisation and atmosphere; therefore an intensification of the relationships between architecture and tourism between 1990 and 2007. Conservation and conversion (Kunsthaus Tacheles), renovation and expansion (Reichstag, Museum Island), successive enlargement (Documentation centre of the Berlin Wall), new constructions and temporal architecture (Holocaust-memorial, and the temporal service building) clearly show the pressure of development on the inner city and on the famous sights, caused by the increasing visitor flows.
CMS, Berlin Technical University, Berlin, Germany
Affiliated fellow in the DFG Transatlantic Graduate Research Program
"Berlin - New York" at the Center for Metropolitan Studies (CMS) of the TU Berlin
Fellow of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) 09.2008-01.2009
Berlin Technical University, Berlin, Germany
Enrolment as doctoral student, directed by Prof. Klaus Zillich
Art Academy – Städelschule, Frankfurt/ Main, Germany
Postgraduate Diploma in Conceptual Design
Theory work „Migrating Dishes“, directed by Prof. Mark Wigley, with honour (1.0)
Thesis work “Hotel Landscape”, directed by Prof. Ben van Berkel, with honour (1.0)
Brandenburg Technical University, Cottbus, Germany
Graduate Diploma in Urban Planning, Dipl.-Ing. (Master Degree)
Thesis “Narrative Urbanism”, directed by Prof. Heinz Nagler, Prof. Eduard Führ
Technical University, St. Petersburg, Russia
Architectural course “community centres”, directed by Prof. Juri Nikitin
Brandenburg Technical University, Cottbus, Germany
Undergraduate Education in Urban Planning, Vordiplom (Bachelor Degree)
Berlin Technical University, Berlin, Germany
Assistant professor at the Institute of Urban Design and Architecture, Prof. Zillich
scheduling course offerings/summer schools, holding lectures, see: www.a.tu-berlin.de/zillich
Tsinghua University, Beijing Germany
The city college of New York, School of Architecture, Urban Design and Landscape Architecture, Prof. Michael Sorkin, New York City, United States
PR ARCHITEKTEN, Praeger Richter Architects, Berlin, Germany
Foundation of an architectural office with Henri Praeger see: www.prarchitekten.de
Klaus Roth Architects, Berlin, Germany
Employment at an architectural Office
Albert Speer & Partners, Frankfurt/Main, Germany
Continuous work in the architectural office, during postgraduate studies, (part time)
VHP Stedebowkundige Architekten, Rotterdam, Netherlands
Practical course supported by Erasmus Program of the European Union
Publications, Lectures etc.
“(Re-)Active - Research on Urban Ecosystems”, Beijing/Berlin, 2007
in GCDM Green City Development Mechanisms, conference proceedings, p. 260-281
“Hochwertig Bauen”, Design Strategies of PR Architekten, Berlin, Germany, 2006
An inscribed project documentation of “House Donaubauer”, ISBN 978-3-00-019100-8
“Architects Talk”, Interviews with Architects, Frankfurt.Main/Berlin, 2004
Edited by Henri Praeger and Jana Richter, ISBN 3-00-014843-4
“Books - Personal”, in Deutsche Bauzeitschrift Gütersloh, Germany
Book review, Deutsche Bauzeitschrift, no. 11/2005, p.32
“Lesezeichen”, in Baumeister, Architectural Paper, Munich, Germany
Book review, by Prof. Falk Jäger, Baumeister no. 07/2005, p. 20
“Inter Body Scape”, Frankfurt/Main, Germany, 2003
Thesis “global – local exchange”, published in “Art and Airports – Städelschule works on
architecture”, p. 80-85, ISBN 3-928071-64-5
“(Re-)Active Wilhelmshaven”, Tsinghua University Beijing/Technical University, 2007
“Train Spotting – Berlin Main Station”, Berlin Technical University, 2007
introduction into urban design principles (Bachelor) & student projects
“(Re-)Active – research on urban ecosystems”, Technical University/Tsinghua, 2006,
introduction to urban ecosystems & student projects
“LM_BCN imaginary constructions–new landmarks”, Berlin Technical University, 2006
Introduction to landmarks in Barcelona & documentation of student research and projects
“Stadturlaub- tourist city Berlin”, Berlin Technical University, 2005
Collection of thoughts to urban tourism & documentations of student projects
“Saft – architectural letter”, Frankfurt/Main, Sydney, 2003
1.issue “The Frankfurt Issue”, 2.issue “Genetics and Tourism”, 3.issue “Moving Out”
CONFERENCES, AWARDS & EXHIBITIONS
“Symposium Architecture & Tourism“, Berlin Technical University, February 07.-08.2008
conception, organisation, publication in 2008
“40 three-dimensional maps”, at „Lange Nacht der Wissenschaften“, Berlin, 2007
“Public Release Exhibition, Architects Talk”, Gallery Antik, Berlin, 2005
”Liquid Relaxation” Young Heads - Visionary Projects, Fair Frankfurt, 2003
Exhibition at “Material Vision - new materials for design and architecture”
“Things Alive”, saft- Exhibition, Rundgang Städelschule, Frankfurt, 2003
„Migrating Dishes“ projected on the “Interactive Table” (designed by Lindsay Webb)
“Art & Airports”, Uia Congress, Berlin 2002
Exhibition about research and analyses, displayed by models and digital presentations
„Presentation of developed urban working methods”, Deubau Prize, Essen, 2002
“U:N:D:” Archiprix International, Rotterdam, 2000
„Stadt Bauen“, Johannes Göderitz Prize, Dresden, 1999
“DAAD Scholarship”, to attend the Technical University St. Petersburg, 1998
„Aquamanus“, Rudolf Müller Prize, Dessau, 1997